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Cuban architecture

Geography

Mapa Cuba Geography

  • Location: Northwest Caribbean.
  • Time GMT – 5 (GMT – 4 from last Sunday in March to last Sunday in October.)
  • Area: 110,922 sq. km (44,218 sq. miles).
  • Population: 11 240 841 million.
  • Population Density: 102 per sq. km.
  • Capital: Havana /Population: 2.2 million (2006)

The Republic of Cuba is an archipelago in the Caribbean Sea, close to the entrance of the Gulf of Mexico. The country consists of the main island Cuba, the largest in the Caribbean, the Isle of Youth (Isla de la Juventud), Cayo Largo key and some 4195 islets and keys. Cuba is divided into 15 provinces, 169 municipalities and the special municipality of the Isle of Youth. From west to east, the provinces are: Pinar del Río, Artemisa, Mayabeque, Havana, Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Villa Clara, Sancti Spíritus, Ciego de Ávila, Camagüey, Las Tunas, Holguín, Granma, Santiago de Cuba and Guantánamo.

Cuba is a long and narrow island (1,200 kilometers from Cabo de San Antonio, the westernmost tip, to Punta de Maisí, the eastern tip). At its widest point it measures 210 kilometers and at its narrowest 32 kilometers. It is dominated by plains and has four major mountain ranges: the Guaniguanico mountains, in the west; Guamuhaya mountains in the central portion; the Sagua-Baracoa range; and the Sierra Maestra the east. The latter contains the country?s highest peak: Turquino, 1,974 meters high. The landscape is diverse, ranging from semi-deserts to tropical rain forests. The country has a large biodiversity and well-preserved ecosystems.

ECONOMY: Up until the fall of the Soviet Union, over 85 % of trade was with the eastern bloc. The collapse of the Union has meant that Cuba has had to look for other trading partners and rethink its economic plan. This has developed into many joint ventures with foreign countries, such as Canada, Spain, Germany, South America and the UK. Cuba main sources of income are tourism, sugar cane, Nickel, construction materials, oil, medicine, as well as coffee, tobacco and citrus fruits.

GOVERNMENT: The Republic of Cuba is one of the last bastions of Socialism, and the people exercise their power through the Municipal, Provincial and National Assemblies. Raul Castro Ruz is the President of the council of Ministers and the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba.

LANGUAGE: The official language is Spanish, although many Cubans have studied English, French, German or Russian.

HEALTH:Cuba’s primary health care system is considered unique in Latin America. Medical services are provided free of charge to all Cubans. The infant mortality rate is 7.2 per 1000 live births and the life expectancy is 75 years. Cuba is among six countries in the world that produce interferon. Its vaccines against meningitis B and C and hepatitis B are unique in the world. These achievements are possible thanks to the existence of 211 scientific research and production institutes.

EDUCATION:Education is provided free of charge at all levels and is compulsory through ninth grade. In 1961 the country eradicated illiteracy through the National Literacy Campaign. Specialized polytechnic institutes, universities and other higher education centers exist in all the provinces.

ETHNIC BACKGROUND: Most Cubans are of a mixed race. Criollos ( over 65 %) are from European descent, Mulatos ( 25 %) are a fusion of European and African descent, Moreno ( 10 %) are of pure African descent, and finally a small percentage of Spanish and Chinese.

NATIONAL EMBLEMS

FLAG                                               COAT OF ARMS

Bandera2 Geographyescudo1 Geography


ANTHEM

The words and music were written by patriot Pedro (Perucho) Figueredo of Bayamo. It was sung as a patriotic song and war cry for the first time on October 20, 1868, in the township of Bayamo, in eastern Cuba, and was later adopted as Cuba’s national anthem.

To combat, people of Bayamo

the country is proud of you

do not fear a glorious death

because to die for the country is to life

To live in chain

Is to live in disgrace and ignominy

Listen to the call to arms,

Go, brave ones.

 

NATIONAL FLOWER: the butterfly jasmine, a white jasmine with an exquisite scent

NATIONAL BIRD: the trogon (tocororo), an endemic species whose plumage is the colors of the Cuban flag.

NATIONAL TREE: the Royal Palm, seen on the Coat of Arm and a familiar element of the Cuban landscape.

THE CLIMATE

Cuba’s climate is moderately subtropical and predominantly warm. We are blessed with beautiful sunny days plus gentle sea breezes and trade winds to cool the air. There is little difference between summer and the winter in terms of temperature but as you can see it does tend to rain more in the summer. However, with the world climate changing so has Cuba.

The island’s average temperature is 25.5ºC and average relative humidity is 78 per cent. It also sees an average of 330 days of sunshine a year. Cuba’s two clearly defined seasons are the rainy season (May to October) and the dry season (November to April).

In the summer months you tend to get sudden burst of showers, clearing just as quickly to leave us once again with glorious sunshine. On the northern side of the island is the Atlantic and the south coast has the slightly warmer Caribbean Sea.






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